When I purchased my 2016 smart pure with manual transmission, the sales person and service department said it could be flat towed. They even gave me the Blue ox base plate part number (new for 453) and I installed it. This forum asked if I did my homework. I call MercedesUSA and they said it could NOT be flat towed more than 30 miles. I questioned WHY and after a few days, the answer is the internal lube pump in the transmission only works when the engine is running. An external lube pump will not work. The 2016 smart and Renault Twingo are manufactured together in France. The engine and transmission are a joint venture with Renault and Nissan, built in Japan. Blue ox was also not aware the 453 couldn't be towed. Hopefully Mercedes learns from this. They killed a large customer base.